When paleontologist Mary Schweitzer found soft tissue in a Tyrannosaurus rex fossil , her discovery raised an obvious question - how the tissue could have survived so long? The bone was 68 million years old, and conventional wisdom about fossilization is that all soft tissue, from blood to brains , decomposes. Only hard parts, like bones and teeth, can become fossils. But for some people, the discovery raised a different question. How do scientists know the bones are really 68 million years old? Today's knowledge of fossil ages comes primarily from radiometric dating , also known as radioactive dating.
Modern carbon, on the other hand, makes the bone sample significantly younger than its true age. To prevent these inaccuracies, AMS labs perform pretreatment on all bone samples before subjecting them to AMS radiocarbon dating.
Physical pretreatment refers to processes done on the bone samples for carbon dating without using chemicals. Examples of physical pretreatment done on bones in AMS labs are removal of plant rootlets and reduction of sample size by crushing.
Rootlets are removed using a pair of tweezers or forceps. A surgical scalpel or a dental grill is used to scrape off contaminated exterior layers of bone samples. Softness indicates the potential absence of collagen, which is needed for AMS carbon 14 dating. After initial removal of visible contaminants, AMS lab personnel crush bone samples in a mortar and pestle.
Size reduction is done to increase the surface area of the sample during succeeding pretreatment methods. Different AMS labs may have slight variations in the procedure of chemical pretreatment, but they often use the same chemicals in treating bone samples.
The crushed bone sample is washed with dilute, cold hydrochloric acid HCl repeatedly until hydroxyapatite is eliminated and the collagen is isolated. Rootlets, if present, are further removed from the collagen.
Carbondated dinosaur bones are less than 40, years old. s. Researchers have found a reason for the puzzling survival of soft tissue and DNA fragments in dinosaur bones - the bones are younger than anyone ever guessed. But how can old bones tell scientists anything? One scientific technique scientists will often turn to is carbon dating. This technique has proved to be quite accurate for determining the age of ancient artifacts that have a biological origin, such as bones or wood . Only hard parts, like bones and teeth, can become fossils. But for some people, the discovery raised a different question. How do scientists know the bones are really 68 million years old? Today's knowledge of fossil ages comes primarily from radiometric dating, also known as radioactive dating. Radiometric dating relies on the properties of Author: Tracy V. Wilson.
To ensure the complete removal of organic acids, collagen is washed with an alkali solution, usually sodium hydroxide NaOH. AMS labs, however, skip alkali washing when the collagen sample is not well preserved and the washing may remove the remaining organic materials that can still be dated.
Read preview. Read preview Overview. Coleman Indiana University Press, Raboteau Beacon Press, Oregon Historical Quarterly, Vol. New York Times Upfront, Vol. Indian wars The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. The current global surface temperature is around The chart below shows that, in the geologic time scale since the end of the Cretaceous, the global surface temperature was 25 degrees Celsius or higher for many millions of years.
That's a different line on the table. The preservation of dinosaur soft tissue and DNA fragments points to dinosaur bones being tens of thousands, not tens of millions, years old, contradicting the geologic time scale.
Dating old bones
So do the Carbon tests:. The Data: Carbon in dinosaur bones download more details. Dinosaur a. C Years B.
USA State. Baugh and G. Detwiler; in MA Cretaceous sandstone - identified by Dr. Langston of Un. Allosaurus is a carnivorous dinosaur excavated in by the J. Hall, A.
FOSSILS: how fossils are dated
Murray team. Hadrosaur 1, a duck billed dinosaur. Bone fragments were excavated in along Colville River by G.
Detwiler, J. Hadrosaur 2, a duck billed dinosaur. Kline team of the Glendive Dinosaur and Fossil Museum.
Advances in radiocarbon dating techniques enabled Gonzalez and a team of scientists from England and Mexico to date several skulls using less than two grams of bone fragments. Gonzalez was delighted with the results. The oldest skull-referred to as Penon III Woman-was 12, years old. Bones are one of the most common materials sent to accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) labs for radiocarbon dating. This is because bones of animals or humans are often subjects of archaeological studies. A lot about the prehistoric era has been learned due to archaeological studies and radiocarbon dating of saporiviafrancigena.com in-depth information about old civilizations is also available due to.
It was sawed open by the O. Kline, H. Miller team in to retrieve samples for C testing.
Triceratops 1, a ceratopsid dinosaur. A lone femur bone was excavated in in Cretaceous clay at 47 6 18N by 39 22W in Montana by the O. Triceratops 2, a very large ceratopsid-type dinosaur excavated in in Cretaceous clay at 47 02 44N and 32 49W in Montana by the O. Kline team of Glendive Dinosaur and Fossil Museum. Outer bone fragments of a femur were tested for C Hadrosaur 3, a duck billed dinosaur.
Scrapings were taken from a large bone excavated by Joe Taylor of Mt. Apatosaur, a sauropod. Scrapings were taken from a rib still imbedded in the clay soil of a ranch in CO, partially excavated in an in Ma late Jurassic strata by C.
Baugh and B. Bow is the bulk organic fraction of whole bone; Col is collagen fraction; w or ext is charred, exterior or whole bone fragments; Hum is humic acids. Bioapatite is a major component of the mineralised part of bones. It incorporates a small amount of carbonate as a substitute for phosphate in the crystal lattice.
Charred bone is the description given by lab personnel for blackened bone surfaces. Collagen: Proteins that are the main component of connective tissue. Yet it is found in four-foot long, nine-inch diameter dinosaur femur bones claimed to be greater than 65 million years old. The "Modified Longin Method" is the normal purification method for bone collagen. Libby, the discoverer of Radiocarbon dating and Nobel Prize winner, showed that purified collagen could not give erroneous ages.
Others should attempt to replicate these results, as two researchers did in Data from page of: Thomas, Brian, Vance Nelson. Spring Radiocarbon in Dinosaur and Other Fossils. Creation Research Society Quarterly, Vol.
Watch a video of the conference presentation. See the conference schedule for presentation of abstract BGA at On the conference website, the abstract was removed from position number 5. Banned by the Center for Applied Isotope Studies. From through the Paleochronology group had 11 dinosaur bone samples carbon dated by the Center for Applied Isotope Studies at the University of Georgia, and for good reason.
Dating Old Bones
Senior research scientist Alexander Cherkinsky specializes in the preparation of samples for Carbon testing. He directed the pretreatment and processing of the dinosaur bone samples with the Accelerator Mass Spectrometer, though he did not know the bones were from dinosaurs, and he signed the reports.
Carbon dating at this facility is certainly the very best. But insomeone told the director of the facility, Jeff Speakman, that the Paleochronology group was showing the Carbon reports on a website and YouTube and drawing the obvious conclusions.
So when he received another bone sample from the Paleochronology group, he returned it to sender and sent an email saying: "I have recently become aware of the work that you and your team have been conducting with respect to radiocarbon dating of bone.
The scientists at CAIS and I are dismayed by the claims that you and your team have made with respect to the age of the Earth and the validity of biological evolution.
Consequently, we are no longer able to provide radiocarbon services in support of your anti-scientific agenda. I have instructed the Radiocarbon Laboratory to return your recent samples to you and to not accept any future samples for analysis.
Notice that he did not say the radiocarbon reports of the dinosaur bone samples were inaccurate. No, his objection was that the Paleochronology group was using the reports as evidence that dinosaurs lived thousands, not millions, of years ago. So I asked him 3 times over 3 weeks what is the right conclusion to draw from the test results they provided us; then I asked his entire scientific staff.
None of them had an answer. This is an attitude we have encountered among members of academia: there is an established truth, and all evidence contrary to it is rejected.
A nyone who challenges the established truth is made an enemy. The threat hangs over everyone. A manager of a commercial laboratory that does Carbon dating, Beta Analytic Inc. Her interest led us to propose that her company perform a Carbon test on a T-rex bone we acquired.
She wrote back:. Thanks for considering our service in this project. We wish you well in your research but must choose to opt-out of the analysis.
Since you have identified it as T-rex, and these are known to be extinct for 50 million years, it is beyond the limit of our dating. If a "recent" result was derived it would be universally challenged with possible risks of poor result claims for our laboratory. This is a project much better suited for collaboration with a university laboratory.
It has demonstrated both the technical competency and management system requirements necessary to consistently deliver technically valid test results.
These standards are universally recognized as the highest level of quality attainable by a testing laboratory.
Mark Armitage and the triceratops horn. Mark was suddenly terminated by the Biology Department when his discovery of soft tissues in a Triceratops horn was published in Acta Histochemica.
The university claimed his appointment at had been temporary and claimed a lack of funding for the position.
This was news to him, and contradicted prior statements and documents from the university. Mark Armitage has a MS degree in biology and has been a microscope scientist microscopist for 30 years. He was the president of the Southern California Society for Microscopy for several years.
He has some 30 publications to his credit. Mark's micrographs have appeared on the covers of eleven scientific journals, and he has many technical publications on microscopic phenomena in such journals as American Laboratory, Southern California Academy of Sciences Bulletin, Parasitology Research, Microscopy and Microanalysis, Microscopy Today and Acta Histochemica, among others.
According to papers filed with the Superior Court of Los Angeles County, when Mark Armitage interviewed for an opening at CSUN for a "regular" "part-time" microscopist in he told the panel that he had published materials supportive of creationism. William Krohmer, Manager of Technical Services and Safety, who would be Armitage's direct supervisor, was on the panel.
The panel hired Armitage despite his creationist writings because of his exceptional qualifications. The position was Electron Microscopy Technician in the Department of Biology, working two ten-hour days per week.
He was "permanent part-time" and was allowed to enroll in the full benefits package of the university. He ran the Microscopy Imaging Facility with its three electron microscopes, personally training students and faculty on their proper use.
He was often praised for his work and accomplishments. The Biology Department bought a new confocal microscope that used high-powered lasers for imaging and was computer-driven. Armitage supervised the installation of the new microscope. He was assigned to be the only instructor on it, with responsibility for control and supervision of the instrument. In Februaryhe was asked to teach a full graduate course in Biological Imaging for the Biology Department.
In MarchDr. Steven B. Oppenheimer sent an email to staff saying that the two days per week that Armitage was working needed to be expanded in order to facilitate the growing demands of the microscopy lab.
In JuneDr. Ernest Kwok was made chairman of the committee overseeing the microscopy lab, and became Armitage's new supervisor. In the summer ofArmitage responded to an invitation to participate in a search for dinosaur fossils in Glendive, Montana in the famous Hell Creek formation.
He found the brow-horn of a triceratops; it was not petrified. Studying the horn at the CSUN lab, he discovered soft tissue in the supposedly million-year-old or more fossil.
While teaching students how to use microscopes in the lab that he directed at CSUN, Armitage engaged them in brief socratic dialogue about the possible age of the horn. One of Dr. Kwok's students was stunned by the discovery and implications of soft tissue in the triceratops horn, and told Dr.
Kwok about it. On June 12,Dr. Kwok stormed into Armitage's lab and shouted, "We are not going to tolerate your religion in this department! Armitage reported this to the Biology Department chair, Dr. They both played down the event and told Armitage to forget it.
Praise for Armitage's work continued from distinguished members of the Biology Department. In Novembera photo of the soft tissue in the triceratops horn was published on the cover of American Laboratory magazine. The former chair of the Biology Department, Dr. Oppenheimer, wrote a ringing endorsement of Armitage in a letter of recommendation.
On February 12,the journal Acta Histochemica published a paper by Armitage describing the discovery of soft tissue in the triceratops horn. Acta Histochemica is a peer-reviewed journal of structural biochemistry of cells and tissue that welcomes advanced microscopical imaging; it has been publishing since On the day the paper was published, Dr.
Kwok called a secret meeting of the committee overseeing the microscopy lab. Armitage had served on the committee for three years, but he was not invited. The committee decided to terminate Armitage.
On February 19,William Krohmer told Armitage that there was a "witch hunt" being mounted against him, and advised him to resign.
Have You Ever Wondered..
When he refused to resign, Krohmer told him he would be terminated. Armitage was fired on February 27, He was told that his job had only been a "temporary appointment". There is a sidenote to this story. Hugh Miller, head of the Paleochronology group, obtained a bone sample from the triceratops horn Mark Armitage discovered.