Tin is a silvery metal that characteristically has a faint yellow hue. Tin, like indium , is soft enough to be cut without much force. Pure tin after solidifying keeps a mirror-like appearance similar to most metals. However, in most tin alloys such as pewter , the metal solidifies with a dull gray color. Tin is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table of elements. It is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite , which contains stannic oxide , SnO 2. Metallic tin does not easily oxidize in air.
Tin is a silvery metal that characteristically has a faint yellow hue. Tin, like indiumis soft enough to be cut without much force. Pure tin after solidifying keeps a mirror-like appearance similar to most metals. However, in most tin alloys such as pewterthe metal solidifies with a dull gray color. Tin is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table of elements.
It is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiteritewhich contains stannic oxideSnO 2. Metallic tin does not easily oxidize in air. Another large application for tin is corrosion -resistant tin plating of steel. Because of the low toxicity of inorganic tin, tin-plated steel is widely used for food packaging as tin cans.
However, some organotin compounds can be almost as toxic as cyanide. Tin is a soft, malleableductile and highly crystalline silvery-white metal.
When a bar of tin is bent, a crackling sound known as the " tin cry " can be heard from the twinning of the crystals. The melting point is further lowered to It is a dull-gray powdery material with no common uses other than a few specialized semiconductor applications. Al, Zn, etc. Commercial grades of tin Alloying elements such as copper, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, and silver increase its hardness. Tin tends rather easily to form hard, brittle intermetallic phases, which are often undesirable.
It does not form wide solid solution ranges in other metals in general, and few elements have appreciable solid solubility in tin. Simple eutectic systems, however, occur with bismuthgalliumlea thallium and zinc. Tin becomes a superconductor below 3. Tin resists corrosion from waterbut can be attacked by acids and alkalis.
Tin can be highly polished and is used as a protective coat for other metals. Tin has ten stable isotopeswith atomic masses ofthrough, an the greatest number of any element. Of these, the most abundant are Sn almost a third of all tinSn, and Sn, while the least abundant is Sn. Tin, with its three common isotopes Sn, Sn, and Sn, is among the easiest elements to detect and analyze by NMR spectroscopyand its chemical shifts are referenced against SnMe 4.
This large number of stable isotopes is thought to be a direct result of the atomic number 50, a " magic number " in nuclear physics. Tin also occurs in 31 unstable isotopes, encompassing all the remaining atomic masses from 99 to Apart from Snwith a half-life ofyears, all the radioisotopes have a half-life of less than a year. The radioactive Sndiscovered inand Sn are two of the few nuclides with a " doubly magic " nucleus: despite being unstable, having very lopsided proton-neutron ratios, they represent endpoints beyond which stability drops off rapidly.
The relative differences in the abundances of tin's stable isotopes can be explained by their different modes of formation in stellar nucleosynthesis.
The isotopes Sn through Sn also receive contributions from the r -process. Finally, the rarest proton-rich isotopes, Sn, Sn, and Sn, cannot be made in significant amounts in the s - or r -processes and are considered among the p-nucleiwhose origins are not well understood yet. Some speculated mechanisms for their formation include proton capture as well as photodisintegrationalthough Sn might also be partially produced in the s -process, both directly, and as the daughter of long-lived In.
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It is not found in other branches of Indo-Europeanexcept by borrowing from Germanic e. The Latin name stannum originally meant an alloy of silver and lead, and came to mean 'tin' in the 4th century  -the earlier Latin word for it was plumbum candidumor "white lead". The Meyers Konversations-Lexikon speculates on the contrary that stannum is derived from the ancestor of Cornish steanand is proof that Cornwall in the first centuries AD was the main source of tin.
Tin extraction and use can be dated to the beginnings of the Bronze Age around BC, when it was observed that copper objects formed of polymetallic ores with different metal contents had different physical properties.
Arsenical bronze objects appear first in the Near East where arsenic is commonly found in association with copper ore, but the health risks were quickly realized and the quest for sources of the much less hazardous tin ores began early in the Bronze Age. Cassiterite SnO 2the tin oxide form of tin, was most likely the original source of tin in ancient times. Other forms of tin ores are less abundant sulfides such as stannite that require a more involved smelting process.
Cassiterite often accumulates in alluvial channels as placer deposits because it is harder, heavier, and more chemically resistant than the accompanying granite. Alluvial placer deposits may incidentally have been collected and separated by methods similar to gold panning.
Halide compounds are known for both oxidation states. The three heavier members are volatile molecular compounds, whereas the tetrafluoride is polymeric. All are polymeric solids. Of these eight compounds, only the iodides are colored.
Tin II chloride also known as stannous chloride is the most important tin halide in a commercial sense. Illustrating the routes to such compounds, chlorine reacts with tin metal to give SnCl 4 whereas the reaction of hydrochloric acid and tin produces SnCl 2 and hydrogen gas.
Alternatively SnCl 4 and Sn combine to stannous chloride by a process called comproportionation : . Tin can form many oxides, sulfides, and other chalcogenide derivatives. The dioxide SnO 2 cassiterite forms when tin is heated in the presence of air. Organotin hydrides are however well known, e. Organotin compounds, sometimes called stannanes, are chemical compounds with tin-carbon bonds.
The first organotin compound to be reported was diethyltin diiodide C 2 H 5 2 SnI 2reported by Edward Frankland in Most organotin compounds are colorless liquids or solids that are stable to air and water. They adopt tetrahedral geometry. Tetraalkyl- and tetraaryltin compounds can be prepared using Grignard reagents : . The mixed halide-alkyls, which are more common and more important commercially than the tetraorgano derivatives, are prepared by redistribution reactions :.
Divalent organotin compounds are uncommon, although more common than related divalent organogermanium and organosilicon compounds. The greater stabilization enjoyed by Sn II is attributed to the " inert pair effect ". Organotin II compounds include both stannylenes formula: R 2 Sn, as seen for singlet carbenes and distannylenes R 4 Sn 2which are roughly equivalent to alkenes. Both classes exhibit unusual reactions.
Tin is generated via the long s -process in low-to-medium mass stars with masses of 0. Tin does not occur as the native element but must be extracted from various ores. Cassiterite SnO 2 is the only commercially important source of tin, although small quantities of tin are recovered from complex sulfides such as stannitecylindritefranckeitecanfielditeand teallite.
Tin is often recovered from granules washed downstream in the past and deposited in valleys or the sea.
The most economical ways of mining tin are by dredginghydraulickingor open pits. Most of the world's tin is produced from placer deposits, which can contain as little as 0.
Abouttonnes of tin have been mined inmostly in ChinatIndonesia 51, tPeru 34, tBolivia 20, t and Brazil 12, t. Secondary, or scrap, tin is also an important source of the metal. Recovery of tin through secondary production, or recycling of scrap tin, is increasing rapidly. Whereas the United States has neither mined since nor smelted tin sinceit was the largest secondary producer, recycling nearly 14, tonnes in Tin is produced by carbothermic reduction of the oxide ore with carbon or coke.
Both reverberatory furnace and electric furnace can be used. An International Tin Council was established in to control the price of tin, until it collapsed in Tin is unique among other mineral commodities because of the complex agreements between producer countries and consumer countries dating back to The earlier agreements tended to be somewhat informal and sporadic and led to the "First International Tin Agreement" inthe first of a continuously numbered series that effectively collapsed in The ITC supported the price of tin during periods of low prices by buying tin for its buffer stockpile and was able to restrain the price during periods of high prices by selling tin from the stockpile.
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This was an anti-free-market approach, designed to assure a sufficient flow of tin to consumer countries and a profit for producer countries. However, the buffer stockpile was not sufficiently large, and during most of those 29 years tin prices rose, sometimes sharply, especially from through when rampant inflation plagued many world economies.
During the late s and early s, the U. Government tin stockpile was in an aggressive selling mode, partly to take advantage of the historically high tin prices. The sharp recession of proved to be quite harsh on the tin industry. Tin consumption declined dramatically.
The ITC was able to avoid truly steep declines through accelerated buying for its buffer stockpile; this activity required the ITC to borrow extensively from banks and metal trading firms to augment its resources.
The ITC continued to borrow until late when it reached its credit limit. Inabout half of all tin produced was used in solder. The rest was divided between tin plating, tin chemicals, brass and bronze alloys, and niche uses.
Tin with lead forms a eutectic mixture at the weight proportion of Such solders are primarily used for joining pipes or electric circuits. Replacing lead has many problems, including a higher melting point, and the formation of tin whiskers causing electrical problems. Tin pest can occur in lead-free solders, leading to loss of the soldered joint.
My "go-to" reference materials for dating and identifying pieces for which I know the manufacturer are two much-used reference books: Smith & Wafford, The Book of Griswold & Wagner, Favorite, Wapak, Sidney Hollow Ware (5 th ed. ) (commonly called the "Blue Book"), and Smith & Wafford, The Book of Wagner & Griswold, Martin, Lodge.
Replacement alloys are rapidly being found, although problems of joint integrity remain. Tin bonds readily to iron and is used for coating lea zinc and steel to prevent corrosion. Tin-plated steel containers are widely used for food preservationand this forms a large part of the market for metallic tin.
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A tinplate canister for preserving food was first manufactured in London in One derivation of such use is the slang term " tinnie " or "tinny", meaning "can of beer" in Australia.
The tin whistle is so called because it was first mass-produced in tin-plated steel. Tin in combination with other elements forms a wide variety of useful alloys.
Tin is most commonly alloyed with copper. Tin has sometimes been used in coinage; for example, it once formed a single-digit percentage usually five percent or less of American  and Canadian  pennies. A superconducting magnet weighing as little as two kilograms is capable of the magnetic field of a conventional electromagnet weighing tons.
A small percentage of tin is added to zirconium alloys for the cladding of nuclear fuel. The proportion of tin in the pipe defines the pipe's tone, since tin has a desirable tonal resonance. This metal alloy is referred to as spotted metal. Major advantages of using tin for pipes include its appearance, its workability, and resistance to corrosion.
The oxides of indium and tin are electrically conductive and transparent, and are used to make transparent electrically conducting films with applications in Optoelectronics devices such as liquid crystal displays.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from Latin: stannum) and atomic number Tin is a silvery metal that characteristically has a faint yellow hue. Tin, like indium, is soft enough to be cut without much force. When a bar of tin is bent, the so-called "tin cry" can be heard as a result of sliding tin crystals reforming; this trait is shared by indium, cadmium, and frozen saporiviafrancigena.comopes: alpha, ? (gray); beta, ? (white). 4. Personal Dating Assistants (like Tinder but for rich people) You want to use Tinder, but you're too busy, and you're loaded (it is the perfect time of year for it with revision and student Author: Roisin Lanigan. Dating tin cans - Find single man in the US with footing. Looking for sympathy in all the wrong places? Now, try the right place. Is the number one destination for online dating with more marriages than any other dating or personals site. Find a man in my area! Free to join to find a woman and meet a man online who is single and seek you.
Punched tin-plated steel, also called pierced tin, is an artisan technique originating in central Europe for creating housewares that are both functional and decorative. Decorative piercing designs exist in a wide variety, based on local tradition and the artisan's personal creations.
Punched tin lanterns are the most common application of this artisan technique. The light of a candle shining through the pierced design creates a decorative light pattern in the room where it sits. Lanterns and other punched tin articles were created in the New World from the earliest European settlement. A well-known example is the Revere lantern, named after Paul Revere. Before the modern era, in some areas of the Alps, a goat or sheep's horn would be sharpened and a tin panel would be punched out using the alphabet and numbers from one to nine.
This learning tool was known appropriately as "the horn". Modern reproductions are decorated with such motifs as hearts and tulips.
In America, pie safes and food safes were in use in the days before refrigeration. These were wooden cupboards of various styles and sizes - either floor standing or hanging cupboards meant to discourage vermin and insects and to keep dust from perishable foodstuffs. These cabinets had tinplate inserts in the doors and sometimes in the sides, punched out by the homeowner, cabinetmaker or a tinsmith in varying designs to allow for air circulation while excluding flies.
Modern reproductions of these articles remain popular in North America. Window glass is most often made by floating molten glass on molten tin float glassresulting in a flat and flawless surface. This is also called the " Pilkington process ". Tin is also used as a negative electrode in advanced Li-ion batteries. Its application is somewhat limited by the fact that some tin surfaces [ which? Tin II fluoride is added to some dental care products  as stannous fluoride SnF 2.
Tin II fluoride can be mixed with calcium abrasives while the more common sodium fluoride gradually becomes biologically inactive in the presence of calcium compounds. Of all the chemical compounds of tin, the organotin compounds are most heavily used. Worldwide industrial production probably exceeds 50, tonnes. The major commercial application of organotin compounds is in the stabilization of PVC plastics.
In the absence of such stabilizers, PVC would otherwise rapidly degrade under heat, light, and atmospheric oxygen, resulting in discolored, brittle products. Some organotin compounds are relatively toxic, with both advantages and problems. They are used for biocidal properties as fungicidespesticidesalgaecideswood preservativesand antifouling agents. Some tin reagents are useful in organic chemistry.
In the largest application, stannous chloride is a common reducing agent for the conversion of nitro and oxime groups to amines. The Stille reaction couples organotin compounds with organic halides or pseudohalides. Tin forms several inter-metallic phases with lithium metal, making it a potentially attractive material for battery applications.
Large volumetric expansion of tin upon alloying with lithium and instability of the tin-organic electrolyte interface at low electrochemical potentials are the greatest challenges to employment in commercial cells. The problem was partially solved by Sony. The composition of the active material is approximately Sn 0. Recent research showed that only some crystalline facets of tetragonal beta Sn are responsible for undesirable electrochemical activity. Cases of poisoning from tin metal, its oxides, and its salts are almost unknown.
On the other hand, certain organotin compounds are almost as toxic as cyanide. Exposure to tin in the workplace can occur by inhalation, skin contact, and eye contact. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, see Tin disambiguation.
Chemical element with atomic number Main article: Isotopes of tin. Main article: Tin sources and trade in ancient times. See also: Category:Tin compounds. Pans of recent vintage have thicker walls than do antique pans.
They are also heavier in weight. Note that the thickness of the wall of the more recent vintage Lodge on the left is almost twice that of the antique ERIE spider skillet on the right. This pan was manufactured in around This skillet, in excellent condition, can be worth thousands of dollars. The spider skillet is one of the most - if not the most - collectible of Griswold cast iron cookware.
A more common unmarked Griswold line is Griswold Iron Mountain pans. These pans were manufactured in the s. Iron Mountain pans are fantastic cookers! I love my Iron Mountain pans. The distinctive handle shape easily identifies Iron Mountain skillets. They also have a heat ring, pan number and 4-digit product number in a slightly italicized font imprinted on the bottom. Number 7 cast iron pan manufactured by the Griswold Manufacturing Company as part of the Iron Mountain line, circa s.
Iron Mountain skillets have a heat ring and 4-digit product numbers and the pan number in a slightly italicized font on the bottom. Some of the Victor pans have the Griswold name on them and some do not. The later Victor pans also carried the Griswold name.
Victor cast iron skillet number 9 manufactured by the Griswold Mfg. If the pattern number is on the Puritan or Merit skillet it was manufactured by Griswold. If not, it was manufactured by Favorite. If a pan has one or more notches in the heat ring, it is likely a vintage Lodge. Unmarked pans with a heat raised letter on the underside, along with a raised number on the handle, may have been made in the late s - by Blacklock, the foundry that preceded the Lodge foundry. Vollrath Manufacturing Company, Sheboygan, Wisconsin : Vollrath manufactured many items of kitchenware from the late s until today.
Some of the Vollrath cast iron skillets have the Vollrath name on them, and some do not. If you run across a pan with an underlined number imprinted sideways on the bottom center of the pan, you likely have a pan that was manufactured by Vollrath pan in thes and s.
Vollrath cast iron skillet no. BSR manufactured non-enameled cast iron pans between about and Take a good look at the underside of the handle of your no-name skillet. Is there a ridge that goes all the way to the outer wall of the pan?
This is a telltale sign of all unmarked BSR pans. There are three primary BSR lines of cast iron skillets. All have the ridge on the underside of the handle that goes directly to the side wall.
These skillets typically have only a number, often followed by a letter, incised in the bottom of the pan near the handle. The pour spouts on these skillets are smaller than seen on other skillets. Beneath the number is the diameter of the pan in inches, i. They are marked the same as the s Century skillets, but the name of the piece - i. Often times unmarked Wagner pans are mistaken for BSR pans. One notable difference is that the ridge on the underside of the handle flattens out before it meets the side wall of the skillet.
The flattening out is a telltale sign that the pan was not manufactured by BSR. Unmarked Wagner cast iron skillet; ridge on underside of handle flattens out where it meets the outer wall.
The bottom of unmarked Wagner pans may be smooth, or they may have a heat ring. They may be marked with the size in diameter, e. The pans often have a letter on the bottom of the pan in a Times New Roman-type font, and on the underside of the handle. Unmarked Wagner Ware cast iron skillet; marked only with B on the bottom of the skillet and on the underside of the handle. Unmarked Wagner Ware skillet. Note the Times New Roman type face and break in ride on underside of handle.
Unmarked Wagner. Note letter on bottom of skillet and underside of handle. The line is therefore somewhat blurred as to whether certain pieces were manufactured by CHF or by Favorite.